Diabetes mellitus is one of the most serious health problems of our time. According to current data, there are about 17 million diabetics in the US alone, with at least 3 million unaware that they are ill. Again in the US about 1 million new cases of diabetes are detected each year.
The majority of cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus occur below the age of 30 with most occurring in childhood and adolescence. Type 1 diabetes is one of the leading chronic diseases in children. Type 1 diabetes also occurs over the age of 30 but much less frequently. The disease affects men and women equally often, is more common among the populations of northern Europe and America and less common among Asian nations. There is an established “inheritance” in type 1 diabetes mellitus, but it is much weaker than in type 2 diabetes mellitus. 5% to 10% of all diabetes mellitus in the world is type 1.
The predominant number of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus occur beyond the age of 45, with the risk increasing with age. Over the age of 65 almost 20% of people suffer from type 2 diabetes. With widespread malnutrition obesity and sedentary lifestyles type 2 diabetes is relatively common in young people including children. Type 2 diabetes is a little more common in women. About 90-95% of all diabetes mellitus is type 2 diabetes. In a significant proportion of cases, type 2 diabetes occurs on the basis of obesity and other metabolic disorders, collectively referred to as “metabolic syndrome X”.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus also called insulin-independent diabetes or diabetes starting in adulthood; these names are less commonly used nowadays as they are considered incompletely correct. This is the most common type of diabetes mellitus. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas (pancreas) secretes the hormone insulin, but its secretion is inadequate for the needs of the body’s cells. This means that insulin is released in less than the required amount or (more often) the cells do not respond to the action of the insulin. This condition, in which cells are insulin insensitive is called insulin resistance. In response to this insensitivity, pancreatic beta cells begin to produce and release more insulin which will affect the insensitive cells. However insulin fails to bring blood glucose into the muscle cells, liver and blood sugar remains high.
Gradually, these “high revolutions” of beta-cell production lead to their depletion and their gradual decline to the sometimes complete disappearance of insulin secretion. About 90% of all diabetics are ill with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This type of diabetes usually develops in adults (over 40-45 years old) and is most common after 55 years of age, but can also occur at a young age. About 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from overweight and obesity. Obesity can be one of the reasons for developing type 2 diabetes at a young or even adolescent age. People in diabetic families are at greater than usual risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes is usually treated with diet, weight loss, physical activity regimen) and tablets (stimulant drugs) the secretion of insulin from the pancreas or those that “sensitize” the body’s cells to insulin) in the first years, but usually in more than half of the cases, insulin is required to be included in the treatment over a period of time (pancreatic beta cells have depleted already possible insulin is not produced in the body). Symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus usually manifest themselves gradually and are not as clearly noticeable as those in type 1. Most commonly, complaints include constant fatigue, often and more urination (especially at night), unusual thirst, blurred vision, frequent infections, slow healing of wounds and ulcers and less commonly weight loss.