Metabolic Syndrome

What is Metabolic Syndrome?

In 1940, it was first assumed that metabolic diseases predispose to cardiovascular disease. Forty years later, this mechanism becomes clearer. The metabolic syndrome, also known as X syndrome or dysmetabolic syndrome, is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Metabolic syndrome includes androgen-type obesity (around the waist) with insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), high cholesterol and high blood sugar and high atherosclerotic risk.



Insulin resistance is a loss of cell sensitivity to insulin secreted by the pancreas and involved in the transport of blood sugar to the body’s cells.

Prerequisites for the development of the metabolic syndrome are disease processes in the body, family predisposition, lifestyle and nutrition. Low motor activity, a sedentary lifestyle, progressive weight gain are also prerequisites.

Metabolic syndrome occurs in 5% of people with normal body weight, 22% with overweight and 60% with obesity. 45% of people whose weight is steadily progressing by more than 2.3 kg each year are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

What Are The Complications Of Metabolic Syndrome?

Metabolic syndrome is a pathological condition that is the precursor to diabetes and cardiovascular disease – two of the most common chronic conditions today. This makes the metabolic syndrome a socially significant problem for society.

The metabolic syndrome increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, the more common diabetes, by 9 to 30 times. According to various studies, the risk of developing heart disease in metabolic syndrome increases between 2-4 times.

The metabolic syndrome leads to fat accumulation in the liver, which predisposes to steatosis, non-alcoholic steatous hepatitis and cirrhosis. The kidneys can also be affected by diabetes and high blood pressure.

Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition observed in obesity, predominantly in men, but also in women. Extreme obesity not only causes the onset of on the one hand, but on the other, active treatment of sleep apnea is important for the correction of metabolic syndrome.

What Is The Treatment Of Metabolic Syndrome?

The main goal is to eliminate the causes of metabolic disorders and prevent the development of cardiovascular disease. As most people with metabolic syndrome are overweight and have a sedentary lifestyle, weight loss through individual nutrition and physical activity programs is recommended. In some cases, medications are also prescribed.

A detailed consultation is held on the benefits and harms of consuming certain products. The Mediterranean diet, which is rich in healthy fats with a reasonable carbohydrate-to-protein ratio, is usually recommended. Many studies show that people adhering to this style of eating are far less likely to be overweight and there is an improvement in their blood pressure, cholesterol and other indicators related to cardiovascular disease risk.

The required minimum of physical activity is 30 minutes five times a week. Movement affects blood pressure, cholesterol, and insulin sensitivity of the body.

People who have had a heart attack should lower their total cholesterol level below 5.2 mmol / l. Triglycerides should be maintained below 1.7 mmol / l. Cholesterol-lowering remedies are a medicine of choice. In isolated hypertriglyceridemia, fibrates are used at the discretion of the physician. The health risks of diabetes and heart attacks are equivalent to those of one condition or another. In all cases, metabolic syndrome requires blood lipid therapy.

Blood pressure should be controlled below 130 / 80mmHg. Some blood pressure medications have other beneficial properties, such as ACE inhibitors reduce the level of insulin resistance, which inhibits the development of type 2 diabetes.

Metformin is commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and helps to prevent diabetes in people with metabolic syndrome. It is the primary agent of choice in patients with insulin resistance, impaired carbohydrate tolerance, obesity and liver steatosis.

Treatment for obstructive sleep apnea depends on the severity of it. In the presence of mild to moderate and conservative approaches such as weight loss, avoiding alcohol and sedation a few hours before bedtime and falling asleep in a lateral posture are sufficient. In more serious cases, special means are used. CPAP – continuous positive airway pressure – equipment most commonly used. A certain pressure is supplied by the apparatus mask. Positive airway pressure prevents soft tissue and apnea collapse. It is important to choose the right size for each individual mask. Some devices operate at a fixed pressure, others provide the ability to dose it as needed.

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